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  • Kibria, Nazli. Family Tightrope: The Changing Lives of Vietnamese Americans.  Princeton University Press, 1993.  A sociological study from field work conducted in Philadelphia during 1983-1985.  
  • Pyke, Karen. “The Normal American Family’’ as an Interpretive Structure of Family Life Among Children of Korean and Vietnamese Immigrants.”  Journal of Marriage and the Family 62 (2000): 240-255. The article is drawn from interviews of 34 Korean American and 39 Vietnamese American students, either 1.5 or second-generation, at a university campus in California. It takes into account, among other things, ideas that interviewees gained from watching TV shows on the American family.
  • Zhou, Min and Carl L. Bankston III. Growing Up American: The Adaptation of Vietnamese Children to American Society.  New York: Russell Sage Foundation: 1999. A sociological classic on the subject of Vietnamese adaptation.



  • Fancher, Tonya, et al.Discussing Depression with Vietnamese American Patients.” In Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 12 (2010).
  • Ta, Van M., et al. “Generational Status and Family Cohesion Effects on the Receipt of Mental Health Services Among Asian Americans.”  In American Journal of Public Health 100:1 (2010).



  • Gold, Steve. “Chinese-Vietnamese Entrepreneurs in California.” In Paul Ong, Edna Bonacich, and Lucie Cheng, eds, The New Asian Immigration in Los Angeles and Global Restructuring. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.

MANICURISTS – Not surprisingly, the large number of Vietnamese manicurists has generated some studies – and no doubt will generate more in the foreseeable future. Appreciation goes to An Nguyen for providing some of the sources to start this sub-section.

  • Eckstein, Susan and Thanh-Nghi Nguyen. “The Making and Transnationalization of an Ethnic Niche: Vietnamese Manicurists.” International Migration Review 45:3 (Fall 2011).
  • Federman, Maya N., David E. Harrington, and Kathy J. Krynsk. “Vietnamese Manicurists: Are Immigrants Displacing Natives or Finding New Nails to Polish?” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59: 2 (January 2006): 302-318.
  • Federman, Maya N., David E. Harrington, and Kathy J. Krynski. “The Impact of State Licensing Regulations on Low-Skilled Immigrants: The Case of Vietnamese Immigrants.” The American Economic Review 96:2 (2006): 237-241.
  • Hoang, Kimberly Kay. “Nailing Race and Labor Relations: Vietnamese Nail Salons in Majority-Minority Neighborhoods.” Journal of Asian American Studies 18:2 (June 2015): 113-140.
  • Kang, Milliann. The Managed Hand: Race, Gender, and the Body in Beauty Service Work. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.  Although this sociological book is about Korean Americans, it should be very significant for researchers on the subject of Vietnamese manicurists. 
  • Quach, Thu et al. “A Preliminary Survey of Vietnamese Nail Salon Workers in Alameda County, California.” Journal of Community Health 33 (May 2008).
  • Roelofs, Cora et al. “Results from a Community-based Occupational Health Survey of Vietnamese-American Nail Salon Workers.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 10 (October 2008).


  • Montero, Darrell. “Senior Division Winner: Women Vietnamese Refugees in the United States: Maintaining Balance between Two Cultures.” The History Teacher 32:1 (November 1998): 90-117.
  • Vo, Linda Trinh.  “Managing Survival: Economic Realities for Vietnamese Women.” In Shirley Hune and Gail M. Nomura, eds., Asian/Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology. New York: New York University Press, 2003.  274-252.